专栏名称: FT每日英语
FT是英国《金融时报》(Financial Times)的简称,1888年创刊。凭借全球记者资源和英语母语特色,每日奉上双语阅读资讯、速读小测、原声视频与电台,轻松学英语。内容涵盖金融财经、时尚轻奢、运动美食、职场管理、移民留学等热门话题。
专栏主题
分享
今天看啥  ›  专栏  ›  公众号  ›  FT每日英语

[原创]归还&发展:法美两国如何对待非洲与非裔文化遗产?| 双语阅读

FT每日英语  · 公众号  · 2018-11-29 18:51

法国总统马克龙委托编写的一份报告称,要将殖民时期从非洲得来的大量艺术品还给非洲国家,还表明将在5年内完成这项任务。法国说话算数吗?与此同时,美国非洲裔历史文化国家博物馆游客参观数量日渐高涨,与黑人历史文化相关的工程也越来越多……这些举措背后又有何原因呢?或许时间会给出答案,让我们拭目以待吧~



The sprawling Quai Branly Museum in Paris is stuffed with treasure,including magnificent statues from present-day Benin and delicate paintings that once decorated church walls in Ethiopia. But a long-awaited report coming out could have a dramatic impact on what visitors see there, with repercussions for other international museums.

不断扩张的法国凯布朗利博物馆里塞满了奇珍异宝。比如,来自现在的贝宁共和国的宏伟雕像和曾在埃塞俄比亚教堂墙壁上装饰的精美画作。然而,一个人们期待已久的报告出现了,它可能会对凯布朗利博物馆游客的参观内容产生巨大影响,也可能给其他国际博物馆带来冲击


repercussion /riːpə'kʌʃ(ə)n/n. 反响;弹回;反射;浮动诊胎法;令人不满意的后果

例句:China succeeded in exploding its first atom bomb which provoked great repercussion around the globe. 中国成功地爆炸了第一颗原子弹,在全世界引起了巨大的反响。


The report commissioned by Emmanuel Macron will call for thousands of African artworks in French museums taken without consent during the colonial period to be returned to the continent.

由法国总统埃马纽埃尔•马克龙委托编写的报告呼吁,归还殖民时期未经同意从非洲拿走的数千件目前陈列于法国博物馆的非洲艺术品。


Photo credit: Getty Images


The academics, Bénédicte Savoy of France and Felwine Sarr of Senegal, recommend that objects that were removed and sent to mainland France without the consent of their countries of origin be permanently returned — if the country of origin asks for them. This restitution should be part of a collaborative process of information gathering, research, scientific exchange and training in the next five years, they say. They have recommended changing French law to allow the restitution of cultural works to Africa.

法国学者Bénédicte Savoy和塞内加尔学者Felwine Sarr建议,如果这些艺术品的母国要求归还的话,则那些未经母国同意便被运到法国的艺术品应当被永久归还。他们表示,归还工作应是未来五年一系列合作的一部分,合作包括信息收集与研究、科学交流和培训。他们也建议修改法国法律,使非洲艺术品归还合法化。


restitution [ˌrestɪˈtju:ʃn] n. 归还原主; 恢复原状; (尤指用钱)赔偿; 补偿

例句:The offender made proper restitution to the victim's kindred. 违法者对受害人亲属给予了适当的补偿。


Mr. Macron first raised the issue in November 2017, when he stood before hundreds of students at a university in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, and made a bold promise that had them clapping and cheering. “I cannot accept that a large part of the cultural heritage of several African countries should be in France,” he said. “Africa’s heritage must be showcased in Paris, but also in Dakar, in Lagos, in Cotonou. This will be one of my priorities. Starting today, and in the next five years, I want to see the conditions put in place so as to allow for the temporary or definitive restitution of African cultural heritage to Africa.”

马克龙总统于2017年11月首次提出这个问题,当时他站在布基纳法索首都瓦加杜古一所大学的数百名学生面前,做出了这个大胆的承诺,赢得了学生们的鼓掌与欢呼。“我不能接受几个非洲国家的大部分文化遗产都集中在法国,” 他说,“非洲的遗产必须在巴黎展出,也必须要在达喀尔、拉各斯和科托努这些城市展出,这将是我的首要工作之一。从今天起,我想看到未来五年内‘物归原主’的条件和措施得到落实,以便暂时或永久地将非洲文化遗产归还给非洲。”



The report could have far-reaching consequences for the international museum world. It says that 90 to 95 percent of Africa’s cultural heritage is held outside Africa by major museums. France alone has at least 90,000 objects from sub-Saharan Africa in its national collections, of which 70,000 are inside the Quai Branly Museum. The rest are elsewhere in Paris, in port cities like Cherbourg and Le Havre, and in large centers like Lyon and Grenoble.

该报告可能对国际博物馆界产生深远的影响,报告称非洲90%至95%的文化遗产由其他各洲的大型博物馆收藏。仅法国就有至少9万件来自撒哈拉以南非洲的国家藏品,其中7万件收藏在凯布朗利博物馆内,其余藏品分布在巴黎其他地方、瑟堡和勒阿弗尔等港口城市以及里昂和格勒诺布尔等大型中心城市。


Photo credit: Getty Images


British troops destroyed much of the beautiful city of Benin in 1897, burning the royal palace to the ground and looting 4,000 works of art, including elegant brass heads and intricate plaques depicting war exploits, known as the Benin bronzes.

1897年,英国军队摧毁了美丽的贝宁城的大部分地区,将皇家宫殿焚烧殆尽并掠夺了4千件艺术品,包括精美的铜头和描绘赫赫战功、做工复杂的牌匾,它们均是著名的贝宁铜器。


brass /brɑːs/ n. 黄铜;黄铜制品;铜管乐器;厚脸皮

例句:Copper and zinc are fused to make brass. 铜与锌熔合后形成黄铜。


The systematic looting of African art took different forms: the researchers found that as well as being the spoils of war, theft and pillage, many of the works had been “bought” for fractions of their real value.

殖民者当年对非洲艺术品的一系列掠夺分别采取了不同的方式。研究人员发现,除了通过战争、盗窃和掠夺得来的战利品外,还有许多艺术品是用相当于其真实价值的极小部分的价钱“买”入的。


pillage [ˈpɪlɪdʒ] vt. 抢劫; 掠夺; n. 抢劫; 掠夺物

例句:There were no signs of violence or pillage. 没有暴力或劫掠的迹象。

fraction /'frækʃ(ə)n/n. 分数;小部分;稍微

例句:Their economy is still a fraction of ours. 他们的经济仍然是我们的一部分。


“Today it feels as if we’re just a step away from recovering our history and being finally able to share it on the continent,” said Marie-Cécile Zinsou, the daughter of Benin’s former prime minister and the president of the Zinsou Art Foundation in Cotonou.

贝宁前总理的女儿、科托努市Zinsou艺术基金会负责人Marie-Cécile Zinsou说:“现在感觉我们离找回历史、并终于能在非洲大陆共享只有一步之遥。”


Photo credit: Getty Images


The question is how far Mr. Macron will go in implementing the recommendations of a nonbinding report, albeit one he ordered himself. Earlier this year, he tore up a set of proposals he commissioned on improving economic conditions in suburban areas. While Mr. Macron has a comfortable majority in the French Parliament, he has an approval rating of 25 percent and faces a nationwide strike against a planned gasoline tax increase.

尽管这是马克龙总统亲自授命撰写的报告,可问题是,他会在多大程度上落实这个没有约束力的报告中的建议。今年初,他撕毁了自己委托的一系列改善郊区经济状况的提议。虽然马克龙的党派在法国议会中占绝对多数,但他的支持率仅为25%,还面临着人们因反对计划上升的汽油税而举行的全国罢工。


albeit /ɔːl'biːɪt / conj. 虽然;即使

例句: That, albeit on a much bigger scale, is the task the world faces in Copenhagen. 即使在更大的规模上,那都是世界在哥本哈根峰会上面对的艰巨任务。


在法国准备“大刀阔斧”地进行艺术品归还工作之时,美国在保护和发扬非洲历史文化方面也做了大量的工作,并且非洲裔博物馆在美也创下了不俗的成绩~


Black history museums and historic sites are flourishing across the South, riding a wave of interest in African-American history that has made a stunning success of the two-year-old National Museum of African American History and Culture in the nation’s capital.

借着人们对非裔美国人历史的兴趣,黑人历史博物馆和历史遗址在美国南部蓬勃发展。这使成立两年的美国非洲裔历史文化博物馆在首都华盛顿取得了极大的成功。


Photo credit: Getty Images


And in Charleston, South Carolina, construction is set to begin next year on a projected $75 million black history museum that will stand on the former site of Gadsden’s Wharf, the disembarkation point for more than 100,000 Africans brought to America and sold into slavery.

在南卡罗来纳州的查尔斯顿,明年将开始建设一座耗资7500万美元的黑人历史博物馆。该馆将建在Gadsden码头的旧址上,当年超过10万名被带来美国卖身为奴的非洲人正是在此上岸。


⑦ disembarkation /dɪs,embɑː'keɪʃən/ n. 登陆;上岸

例句:Please fill in this disembarkation card. 请你填写这张入境卡。


At a time when attendance at some large museums is flagging — 12 of the 20 biggest U.S. museums saw flat or lower attendance in 2017 compared with 2016 — the swirl of activity involving black history stands out.

与2016年相比,2017年一些大型博物馆的参观人数日趋低迷,全美20个最大的博物馆中就有12个经历了客流量平平或者走低的趋势。但一些与黑人历史相关的活动却顶住趋缓压力、脱颖而出。


Photo credit: Getty Images


According to Brian Carter, president of the Association of African American Museums, based in Washington, D.C. “The country is changing. It’s looking at itself in different ways than it has historically,” Carter said. “Museums help people make meaning of their own experiences.”

总部设在华盛顿特区的非裔美国人博物馆协会主席 Brian Carter说,“美国正在发生变化。 它以与历史上不同的方式看待自己,“Carter说, “博物馆帮助人们了解自己的经历。”


词组拓展


be stuffed with 充满;被塞满


例句:Cabbage rolls can also be stuffed with cheeses, and they are classically served in a sauce. 喜欢奶酪的食客会在洋白菜卷中塞满了奶酪,别有风味。


例句:Those flying to the US carrying mooncakes stuffed with yolk or meat are likely to be fined up to $250-1000. 此外,美国还规定,携含有蛋黄和肉类的月饼赴美可能会遭到250-1000美元的处罚。


burn sth to the ground 全部焚毁;夷为平地


例句:They want to burn Kyoto to the ground and oust the Emperor to Edo! 他们要烧掉京都然后帮将军篡位!


例句:Ford vowed that he would sooner burn hisfactory to the ground than build a single vehicle for war purposes. 福特郑重声明他宁可把自己的工厂付之一炬,也不愿意生产一辆用于战争的车辆。



推荐阅读

光棍节,风靡全球的失恋博物馆来了,催泪又治愈……| 双语阅读




今天看啥 - 让阅读更高品质
本文地址:http://www.jintiankansha.me/t/I03pY61vfs